Artemisinin (pronounced ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The compound (a sesquiterpene lactone) is isolated from the shrub Artemisia annua long used in traditional Chinese medicine. Not all shrubs of this species contain artemisinin. Apparently it is only produced when the plant is subjected to certain conditions, most likely biotic or abiotic stress. It can be synthesized from artemisinic acid.
Piperazine is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two opposing nitrogen atoms. Piperazine exists as small alkaline deliquescent crystals with a saline taste.
The piperazines are a broad class of chemical compounds, many with important pharmacological properties, which contain a core piperazine functional group.
In addition to its anti-malarial properties, quinine is an effective muscle relaxant, long used by the Quechua Indians of Peru to halt shivering brought on by cold temperatures. The Jesuit Brother Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642), an apothecary by training and who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the quinine-containing bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and hence malaria-induced shivering) was entirely unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from cold, it was still the correct medicine for malaria. At the first opportunity, he sent a small quantity to Rome to test in treating malaria. In the years that followed, cinchona bark became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe.
Piperazines were originally named because of their chemical similarity with piperidine, a constituent of piperine in the black pepper plant (piper nigrum). Piperidine itself is found in fireant venom and is the cause of the burning sensations from the bites of these insects.
Yohimbine hydrochloride has also been used for the treatment of sexual side effects caused by some antidepressants (SSRIs), female hyposexual disorder, as a blood pressure boosting agent in autonomic failure, xerostomia, and as a probe for noradrenergic activity.
Yohimbine has been used to facilitate recall of traumatic memories in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).. Use of yohimbine outside therapeutic settings may not be appropriate for persons suffering from PTSD
The nih states that yohimbine hydrochloride is the standardized form of yohimbine that is available as a prescription medicine in the united states, and has been shown in human studies to be effective in the treatment of male impotence.
Yohimbine chloride-a standardized form of yohimbine-is a prescription medicine that has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. Controlled studies suggest that it is not always an effective treatment for impotence, and evidence of increased sex drive (libido) is anecdotal only.
10-deacetylbaccatins are a series of closely related natural organic compounds isolated from the pacific yew tree (taxus brevifolia) and related species. 10-deacetylbaccatin iii is used as a chemical intermediate in the preparation of the anti-cancer drug.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of compounds such as carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon, are considered inorganic. The division between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds while "useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry...is somewhat arbitrary".
Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is obtained from plants of the family solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (datura species). It is among the secondary metabolites of these plants. The drug can be highly toxic and should be used in minute doses. As an example, in the treatment of motion sickness, the dose, gradually released from a transdermal patch, is only 330 micrograms (µg) per day. An overdose can cause delirium, delusions, paralysis, stupor and death.
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