Cefalexin (INN) (pronounced) or cephalexin (USAN) is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is an orally-administered agent with a similar antimicrobial spectrum to the intravenous agents cefalotin and cefazolin. It is commonly marketed under the trade name Keflex (Lilly) or Sporidex (Ranbaxy).
Cefalexin is used to treat urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections (including sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and pneumonia, bronchitis), skin and soft tissue infections.
Although it is not generally considered first-line treatment for any indication, it is a useful alternative to penicillins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity. There is, however, cross-reactivity in 10% of patients with hypersensitivity to penicillins and carbapenems.
Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed as Toradol - generics have been approved) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. Ketorolac acts by inhibiting bodily synthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac in its oral and intramuscular preparations is a racemic mixture of (S)-(-)-ketorolac, the active isomer, and (R)-(+)-ketorolac. An ophthalmic solution of ketorolac is available under the name Acular, and is used to treat eye pain and to relieve the itchiness and burning of seasonal allergies.
Cefaclor, also known as cefachlor or cefaclorum (brand names Ceclor, Distaclor, Keflor, Raniclor), is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections.
Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In addition, it is sometimes used to treat Legionellosis. Clarithromycin is available under several brand names, for example Biaxin, Klaricid, Klabax, Claripen, Claridar and Clacid.
Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely available in the usa since 1977. It is also available under the brand name ceftin. Glaxo smith kline sells the antibiotic in australia (and other countries, such as cyprus, israel and poland) under the name zinnat, with the australian pharmaceutical code of r 47621. In the philippines, a brand name shincef has been used. In poland it is also produced by the polish firm bioton s. A. Under the name biofuroksym. In cyprus, the box of the 500mg tablets is white with a wide red stripe on the left and contains two blister cards of seven. The tablets are long white and are marked "gx eg2". The cypriot license for this is 16847. The 250mg tablets come in a similar box with a blue stripe.