Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid, is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. This white crystalline compound is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid, wherein the carboxylic acid groups are cis. It has a fruit-like taste. The salts and esters of fumaric acid are known as fumarates.
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula c6h12o7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH.
Glycolic acid (or hydroxyacetic acid) is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA). This colorless, odorless, and hygroscopic crystalline solid is highly soluble in water.
Glutaric acid is the organic compound with the formula HO2C(CH2)3CO2H. Although the related "linear" dicarboxylic acids adipic and succinic acids are water-soluble only to a few percent at room temperature, the water-solubility of glutaric acid is over 50%.
Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non-essential amino acid. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates.
Pimelic acid is the organic compound with the formula HO2C(CH2)5CO2H. Derivatives of pimelic acid are involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid called lysine.
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