Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). It is the counterpart to the saturated arachidic acid found in peanut oil, (L. arachis – peanut).
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid. In chemical structure, DHA is a carboxylic acid with a 22-carbon chain and six cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5(n-3). It also has the trivial name timnodonic acid.
Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, denoted 22:1 ω-9. It is prevalent in rapeseed, wallflower seed, and mustard seed, making up 40-50% of their oils. Erucic acid is also known as cis-13-docosenoic acid and the trans isomer is known as brassidic acid.
Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. It is a colorless liquid. In physiological literature, it is called 18:2(n-6). Chemically, linoleic acid is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and two cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the sixth carbon from the omega end.
Linolenic acid is an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils. Systematically, it is named all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 18:3 (n−3).
Myristic acid, also called tetradecanoic acid or 14:0 is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH. A myristate is a salt or ester of myristic acid.
Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. It has the formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH). The trans-isomer of oleic acid is called elaidic acid.
Palmitoleic acid, or (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, is an omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid with the formula CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue.