The propionate (IUPAC name propanoate) ion is C2H5COO- (propionic acid minus one hydrogen ion).
A propionate or propanoate compound is a salt or ester of propionic acid.
Propionates/propanoates should not be confused with propenoates, the ions/salts/esters of propenoic acid (also known as 2-propenoic acid or acrylic acid). Testosterone Propionate is used by intramuscular injection and is prescribed to men who have low testosterone or muscle wasting disease.
As a food additive, it is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to bread, other bakery goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. In agriculture, it is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement  Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Calcium propionate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor. Mold contamination is considered a serious problem amongst bakers, and conditions commonly found in baking present near-optimal conditions for mold growth.
A few decades ago, Bacillus mesentericus (rope), was a serious problem, but today's improved sanitary practices in the bakery, combined with rapid turnover of the finished product, have virtually eliminated this form of spoilage. Calcium propionate and sodium propionate are effective against both Bacillus mesentericus rope and mold.
The international union of pure and applied chemistry (iupac) (ipa: /a? Ju? Pæk/) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. It has as its members national chemistry societies. It is most well known as the recognized authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and their compounds, through its interdivisional committee on nomenclature and symbols (iupac nomenclature). It is a member of the international council for science (icsu).
In addition to nomenclature guidelines, the iupac sets standards for international spelling in the event of a dispute; for example, it ruled that international aluminium is preferable to the american aluminum and american sulfur is preferable to the british sulphur.
Many iupac publications are available over the internet. For example, quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry (the "green book") can be downloaded in its entirety, while compendium of chemical terminology is fully searchable online.
Sodium (pronounced )is a chemical element which has the symbol Na (Latin: natrium), atomic number 11, atomic mass 22.9898 g/mol, common oxidation number +1. Sodium is a soft, silvery white, highly reactive element and is a member of the alkali metals within "group 1" (formerly known as 'group IA'). It has only one stable isotope, 23Na. Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Sodium quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as kerosene. Sodium is present in great quantities in the earth's oceans as sodium chloride (common salt). It is also a component of many minerals, and it is an essential element for animal life. As such, it is classified as a "dietary inorganic macro-mineral." reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as kerosene. Sodium is present in great quantities in the earth's oceans as sodium chloride (common salt). It is also a component of many minerals, and it is an essential element for animal life. As such, it is classified as a "dietary inorganic macro-mineral."