Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel for other functional roles in the body. A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an a-ketoacid, typically catalysed by a transaminase. The reaction can be generalised as such:
Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E; the abbreviation Glx or Z represents either glutamic acid or glutamine). The carboxylate anion of glutamic acid is known as glutamate, and this is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the human essential amino acids. Its codons are GAA and GAG.
As its name indicates, glutamic acid has a carboxylic acid component to its side chain. At pH7, the amino group is protonated and one or both of the carboxylic groups will be ionized. Hence, the species has a charge of -1, and is referred to as glutamate. The pKa value for glutamic acid is 4.1, which means that below this pH, the carboxylic acid groups are not ionized in more than half of the molecules.
Ferrochrome aka. FeCr is a corrosion-resistant alloy of chrome and iron containing between 50% and 65% chrome. It is a finishing material which contains about 50-70% (depending on ore used a the producer) chromium alloyed with iron. Most of the world's ferrochrome is produced in South Africa, Kazakhstan and India, which have large domestic Cr Ore resources. Increasing amounts coming from Russia and China.
Monosodium glutamate, sodium glutamate, flavor enhancer 621, EU food additive code: E621, HS code: 29224220 (IUPAC name 2-amino pentanedioic acid. Also known as 2-aminoglutaric acid), commonly known as MSG, Ajinomoto, Vetsin, or Accent, is a sodium salt of glutamic acid. MSG is a food additive and it is commonly marketed as a "flavor enhancer".
Although traditional Asian cuisine uses flavor-enhancing ingredients which contain high concentrations of MSG, it was not isolated until 1907. MSG was subsequently patented by the Japanese Ajinomoto Corporation in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when dissolved in water (or saliva) it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).
Refined Glycerine IW Grade
Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the naturally occurring non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer.