Metamizole sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), commonly used in many countries as a powerful painkiller and fever reducer. It is better known under the names Dipyrone, Analgin, Novalgin, and Melubrin.
Metamizole was first synthesized by the German company Hoechst AG (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in 1920, and its mass production started in 1922. It remained freely available worldwide until the 1970s, when it was discovered that the drug carries a small risk of causing agranulocytosis - a very dangerous and potentially fatal condition. Controversy remains regarding the level of risk. Several national medical authorities have banned metamizole either totally or have restricted it to be available only on prescription.
Metformin (INN; trade names Glucophage, Riomet, Fortamet, Glumetza, Diabex, Diaformin, and others) (IPA: /m?t'f?rm?n/) is an oral anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. Metformin is the most popular anti-diabetic drug in the United States and one of the most prescribed drugs in the country overall, with nearly 35 million prescriptions filled in 2006 for generic metformin alone. As of 2007, it is one of only two oral anti-diabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being glibenclamide).
Whilst atenolol, the most widely used ß-blocker in the United Kingdom, was once first-line treatment for hypertension, the role for ß-blockers in hypertension was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line as they perform less well than other drugs, particularly in the elderly, and there is increasing evidence that the most frequently used ß-blockers at usual doses carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes.
Metoprolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in treatment of several diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially hypertension. It is marketed under the brand name Lopressor or Lopresor, respectively, by Novartis, and Toprol-XL (in the USA); Selokeen (in Nederlands); as Minax by Alphapharm (in Australia), Metrol by Arrow Pharmaceuticals (in Australia), as Betaloc by AstraZeneca, as Neobloc by Unipharm (in Israel) and as Corvitol by Berlin-Chemie AG. A number of generic products is available, too. The active substance metoprolol is employed either as metoprolol succinate or metoprolol tartrate (whereas 100 mg metoprolol tartrate corresponds to 95 mg metoprolol succinate), as conventional release- or prolonged-release.
Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain, including menstrual pain. It is commercially available in the US as Ponstel and internationally by Pfizer as Ponstan and in Austria as Parkemed. It is also prescribed as an antipyretic drug. It is typically prescribed for oral administration.
Mefenamic acid decreases inflammation (swelling) and uterine contractions by a still unknown mechanism. However it is thought to be related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
Since hepatic metabolism plays a significant role in mefenamic acid elimination, patients with known liver deficiency may be prescribed lower doses. Kidney deficiency may also cause accumulation of the drug and its metabolites in the excretory system. Therefore patients suffering from renal conditions should not be prescribed mefenamic acid.
This organic compound is a white powdered solid with a slight aromatic/phenolic odor. It is a chlorinated aromatic compound which has functional groups representative of both ethers and phenols. Phenols often show anti-bacterial properties. Triclosan is only slightly soluble in water, but soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, and stronger basic solutions such as 1 M sodium hydroxide, Triclosan can be made from the partial oxidation of benzene or benzoic acid, by the cumene process, or by the Raschig process. It can also be found as a product of coal oxidation.
Ondansetron (INN) (pronounced) or Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its effects are thought to be on both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the activity of the vagus nerve, which activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, and also blocks serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, and does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.
Bisoprolol had an antihypertensive effect in all hypertension models investigated. Bisoprolol reduced the blood pressure in conscious dogs with renal hypertension, accompanied by only a slight decrease in heart rate. In comparison with bisoprolol, propranolol had a weaker antihypertensive effect even at a considerably higher dose level . Bisoprolol also reduced the blood pressure in rats with renal hypertension. In rats with spontaneous hypertension, the development of high blood pressure could be clearly reduced by chronic treatment with 7.5ug/ kg bisoprolol.
Zolpidem is a prescription medication used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). Some trade names of zolpidem are Ambien, Hypnogen, Myslee. Nimadorm, Nitrest, Sanval, Stilnoct, Stilnox, Zolfresh, and Zolt.