Artemisinin (pronounced ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The compound (a sesquiterpene lactone) is isolated from the shrub Artemisia annua long used in traditional Chinese medicine. Not all shrubs of this species contain artemisinin. Apparently it is only produced when the plant is subjected to certain conditions, most likely biotic or abiotic stress. It can be synthesized from artemisinic acid.
Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). It is among the secondary metabolites of these plants. The drug can be highly toxic and should be used in minute doses. As an example, in the treatment of motion sickness, the dose, gradually released from a transdermal patch, is only 330 micrograms (µg) per day. An overdose can cause delirium, delusions, paralysis, stupor and death.
Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill off the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host. Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. Thus fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level. This means it is more difficult to find a target for an antifungal drug to attack that does not also exist in the infected organism. Consequently, there are often side-effects to some of these drugs. Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening if not used properly.
10-deacetylbaccatins are a series of closely related natural organic compounds isolated from the pacific yew tree (taxus brevifolia) and related species.
Levocetirizine (as levocetirizine dihydrochloride) is a third generation non-sedative antihistamine, developed from the second generation antihistamine cetirizine. Chemically, levocetirizine is the active enantiomer of cetirizine. Levocetirizine works by blocking histamine receptors. It does not prevent the actual release of histamine from mast cells, but prevents it binding to its receptors. This in turn prevents the release of other allergy chemicals and increased blood supply to the area, and provides relief from the typical symptoms of hayfever.
Cetirizine hydrochloride, an antihistamine, (pronounced /s?'t?r?zi?n/) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. The structural similarity of cetirizine to hydroxyzine, and its derivation from piperazine, attribute similar adverse reactions and properties to other piperazine derivatives.
Digoxin (INN) (IPA), also known as Digitalis, is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication. Digoxin preparations are commonly marketed under the trade names Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps. It is also available as a 0.05 mg/mL oral solution and 0.25 mg/mL or 0.5 mg/mL injectible solution.
Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Its approved indications are the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old. Due to concerns about the risk of hepatotoxicity, nimesulide has been withdrawn from market in many countries.
A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasm and pain, and hyperreflexia. The term "muscle relaxant" is used to refer to two major therapeutic groups: neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics. Neuromuscular blockers act by interfering with transmission at the neuromuscular end plate and have no cns activity. They are often used during surgical procedures and in intensive care and emergency medicine to cause paralysis. Spasmolytics, also known as "centrally-acting" muscle relaxants, are used to alleviate musculoskeletal pain and spasms and to reduce spasticity in a variety of neurological conditions. While both neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics are often grouped together as muscle relaxants.
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