Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer A.G. under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e.g. Veterinary medicine), belonging to a group called fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin is bacteriocidal. Its mode of action depends upon blocking bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, thereby causing double-stranded breaks in the bacterial chromosome.
Gatifloxacin is an antibiotic of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone family, that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical Company of Japan. Allergan produces an eye-drop formulation called Zymar. Gatifloxacin is available as tablets and in various aqueous solutions for intravenous therapy.
Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is also sometimes used to treat stomach infections.
Levofloxacin is a 3rd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the trade name Levaquin in the United States. In Europe, it is marketed by Sanofi-Aventis under the trade name Tavanic, in Chile as Gatigol by Alpes Selection, in India under the trade name Lebact marketed by Nicolas Piramal and in Asia it is marketed by Daiichi under the trade names Cravit and Levox. Levofloxacin was launched in the Japanese market in 1993, and thus has had more than 13 years of testing in efficacy and safety globally. Chemically, levofloxacin is the S-enantiomer (L-isomer) of ofloxacin, and has approximately twice the potency of ofloxacin, because the R+enantiomer (D-isomer) of ofloxacin is essentially inactive. In addition, the S-enantiomer (L-isomer) of ofloxacin, has substantially less toxicity. Like other fluoroquinolines, it works by inhibiting DNA gyrase, an enzyme that negatively supercoils DNA.
Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. Bayer AG developed the drug (initially called BAY 12-8039) and it is marketed worldwide (as the hydrochloride) under the brand name Avelox (in some countries also Avalox) for oral treatment. Each tablet contains 400 mg. In most countries the drug is also available in parenteral form for intravenous infusion. Moxifloxacin is also sold in an ophthalmic solution (eye drops) under the name Vigamox for the treatment of conjunctivitis.
Moxifloxacin can be used to treat respiratory infections, including acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia, as well as skin and skin structure infections. Moxifloxacin is also used for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, such as those seen in hospitals. Because moxifloxacin is primarily metabolized and eliminated via the hepatic route, it is not indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections.
Moxifloxacin inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerases are essential enzymes which play a crucial role in the replication and repair of bacterial DNA. This mechanism is lethal to susceptible bacteria. Moxifloxacin is often referred to as a chemotherapeutic drug because its mode of action has so far not been noted in any naturally occurring or semi-synthetic antibiotic
Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In addition, it is sometimes used to treat Legionellosis. Clarithromycin is available under several brand names, for example Biaxin, Klaricid, Klabax, Claripen, Claridar and Clacid.