Esomeprazole (pronounced ) is a proton pump inhibitor (brand names Zoleri, Nexium, Lucen, Esopral; Axagon in Italy) developed and marketed by AstraZeneca which is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Esomeprazole is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (marketed as Losec/Prilosec), and AstraZeneca claims improved efficacy of this single enantiomer product over the racemic mixture of omeprazole. However, this greater efficacy has been disputed, with some claiming it offers no benefit from its older form. (see below). Esomeprazole was the third biggest selling pharmaceutical drug in the world for 2005, totaling US$ 5.7 billion in sales
Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the same pharmacologic class as omeprazole. Lansoprazole has been marketed for many years and is one of several PPI's available.
Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects (i.e. gastric acid suppression). The mean plasma elimination half-life is 1.5 hours, and the effects of the drug last for over 24 hours after it has been used for 1 day or more.
Rabeprazole is a prodrug (metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (or CYP450)) - in the acid environment of the parietal cells it turns into active sulphenamide form associated with cysteine of H+, K+ATPase (proton pump). Rabeprazole inhibits (partly reversibly) H+, K+ATPase of the coating gastric cells and dose-dependent oppresses basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Rabeprazole has anti Helicobacter pylori activity (MIC 4-16 mg/ml) and shows synergistic activity with some antibiotics. Rabeprazole has been demonstrated to be effective in patients with pathological hypersecretory activity.
Duloxetine (brand names cymbalta, yentreve, and in parts of europe, xeristar or ariclaim) is a drug which is indicated for major depressive disorder (mdd), generalized anxiety disorder (gad), pain related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy and in some countries stress urinary incontinence (sui). It is manufactured and marketed by eli lilly and company.
The mechanism of action of itraconazole is the same as the other azole antifungals: it inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 oxidase-mediated synthesis of ergosterol. Because of its ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, caution should be used when considering interactions with other medications.
Anastrozole (INN, trade name: Arimidex) is a drug indicated in the treatment of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. It is used both in adjuvant therapy (i.e. following surgery) and in metastatic breast cancer. It has the effect of decreasing the amount of estrogens that the body makes. Anastrozole belongs in the class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors. It inhibits the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens (produced by women in the adrenal glands) to estrogens.
Duloxetine was created by Lilly researchers. The first publication of the discovery of the novel drug, then known as LY227942, was made in 1988 by David T. Wong and Frank P. Bymaster, two of the researchers behind Eli Lilly's fluoxetine (Prozac). Researchers reported: "These findings suggest that LY227942 has the pharmacological profile of an antidepressant drug and is useful to study the pharmacological responses of concerted enhancement of serotonergic and norepinephrine neurotransmission.
Almotriptan (axert ®, almogran®) is a triptan drug discovered by almirall prodesfarma and licensed to ortho-mcneil for the treatment of migraine headaches. It is available in strengths of 6. 25 and 12. 5 mg as a tablet.
Zolmitriptan is an oral, selective Serotonin receptor agonist, of the serotonin receptor 1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D). It is a triptan, used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura and cluster headaches.
Zolmitriptan is marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand names Zomig, Zomigon (Greece & Argentina), AscoTop (Germany) and Zomigoro (France). In 2005, AstraZeneca generated $352 million in sales with Zomig.