Lead also refers collectively to the organic and inorganic compounds of lead, which are toxic. Lead poisoning was documented in ancient Rome, Greece, and China. In the 20th century, the use of lead in paint pigments was sharply reduced because of the danger of lead poisoning, especially to children.
Lithium fluoride is a chemical compound of lithium and fluorine. It is a white, inorganic, crystalline, ionic, solid salt under standard conditions. It transmits ultraviolet radiation more efficiently than any other substance. Uses include specialized UV optics, and as a means to record gamma and neutron exposure in thermoluminescent dosimeters. Lithium fluoride also has a very high electrical resistance due to its wide band gap. Griceite is the name for very rare mineralogical form of LiF.
Manganese trifluoride is the chemical compound with the formula MnF3. This purplish solid is highly reactive, being unstable in moist air and liberating F2 upon heating. MnF3 is useful for converting hydrocarbons into fluorocarbons; i.e., it is a fluorination agent. R3C-H + 2 MnF3 → R3C-F + HF + 2MnF2.
Stannous fluoride, also known as tin(II) fluoride, is the chemical compound with the formula SnF2. This colorless solid is a common ingredient in toothpaste. In the enamel, it converts apatite into fluoroapatite, which is more resistant to attack by acids generated by bacteria. Sodium fluoride and sodium fluorophosphate perform similarly
Tin fluoride was used (under the trade name Fluoristan) in the original formulation of the toothpaste Crest., though it was later replaced with sodium monofluorophosphate.. However it is the active ingredient in Crest Pro Health brand toothpaste according to the label on the box and the tube. Crest Pro Health also issues a warning on the tube that stannous fluoride may cause staining; and that by proper brushing this can be avoided; and that their particular formulation is resistant to staining.
Zinc Fluoride can be synthesized several ways.
- Reaction of a Fluoride salt with Zinc Chloride, to yield Zinc Fluoride and a Chloride salt, in aqueous solution.
- The heating of pure zinc metal in an environment of pure fluorine gas. The zinc fluoride vapor would then be cooled.
- Reaction of Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) with pure zinc, to yield Hydrogen gas (H2) and Zinc Fluoride (ZnF2).
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