Forty unsymmetric N-phenyl-N-pyrimidylurea derivatives were synthesized in moderate-to-good yields by one-pot reductive carbonylation of nitroaromatics using selenium or selenium dioxide as the catalyst, aminopyrimidine derivatives as co-reagents, and carbon monoxide as the carbonyl source. The reaction parameters were investigated, as was the reusability of the catalysts. We found that selenium- or selenium dioxide.
Selenium antimicrobial compositions background of the invention 1. Field of the invention the present invention relates to selected selenium compounds as novel compositions-of-matter. Furthermore, the present invention relates to antimicrobial compositions useful in soaps, shampoos, skin care medicaments as well as hard surface cleaning compositions and fabric care compositions that contain selected selenium compounds.
Selenium deficiency can lead to Keshan disease, which is potentially fatal. Selenium deficiency also contributes (along with iodine deficiency) to Kashin-Beck disease. The primary symptom of Keshan disease is myocardial necrosis, leading to weakening of the heart. Kashin-Beck disease results in atrophy, degeneration and necrosis of cartilage tissue. Keshan disease also makes the body more susceptible to illness caused by other nutritional, biochemical, or infectious diseases. These diseases are most common in certain parts of China where the soil is extremely deficient in selenium.
Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals. It can occur in patients with severely compromised intestinal function, those undergoing total parenteral nutrition, and also on advanced aged people (over 90). Alternatively, people dependent on food grown from selenium-deficient soil are also at risk. In the USA, the Dietary Reference Intake for adults is 55 µg/day. In the UK it is 75 µg/day for adult males and 60 µg/day for adult females. 55 µg/day recommendation is based on full expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase. Selenoprotein P is a better indicator of selenium nutritional status, and full expression of it would require more than 66 µg/day.
Selenium poisoning of water systems may result whenever new agricultural runoff courses through normally dry undeveloped lands. This process leaches natural soluble selenium compounds (such as selenates) into the water, which may then be concentrated in new "wetlands" as the water evaporates. High selenium levels produced in this fashion have been found to have caused certain congenital disorders in wetland birds.