Tramadol (INN) (pronounced) is an atypical opioid which is a centrally acting analgesic, used for treating moderate to severe pain. It is a synthetic agent, as a 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine, and appears to have actions on the GABAergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Tramadol was developed by the German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal GmbH in the last years of 1970s and marketed under the trade name Tramal. Grünenthal has also cross licensed the drug to many other pharmaceutical companies that market it under various names.
Omeprazole (INN) (pronounced /o'mprzol/) is a proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It was first marketed by AstraZeneca as the magnesium salt omeprazole magnesium under the trade names Losec and Prilosec, and is now also available from generic manufacturers under various trade names. Omeprazole is one of the most widely prescribed drugs internationally and is available over the counter in some countries.
Omeprazole is the racemate (containing a tricoordinated sulfur atom in a pyramidal structure and therefore can exist in equal amounts of both the S and R enantiomers). In the acidic conditions of the stomach, both are converted to achiral products, which reacts with a cysteine group in H+/K+ ATPase, thereby destroying the ability of the parietal cells to produce gastric acid.
Bisacodyl is sold under the trade names dulcolax, fleet, alophen, correctol, carter's little pills as well as generically. It is usually sold as 5mg tablets, 10mg suppositories, or 5mg pediatric suppositories.
Docusate is given to make stools softer and easier to pass. It is used to treat constipation due to hard stools, in painful anorectal conditions such as hemorrhoids, and for people who should avoid straining during bowel movements. Of note is that the effect of docusate may not necessarily be all due to its surfactant properties. Perfusion studies suggest that docusates inhibit fluid absorption or stimulate secretion in jejunum. Patients should take plenty of water to help the movement of feces, therefore speeding up the initial bowel movement.
Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names viagra, revatio and under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (pah), developed by the pharmaceutical company pfizer. Its primary competitors on the market are tadalafil (cialis), and vardenafil (levitra.
The bones serve as a storage site for the body's calcium. They are continuously giving up calcium to the bloodstream and then replacing it as the body's need for calcium changes from day to day. When there is not enough calcium in the blood to be used by the heart and other organs, your body will take the needed calcium from the bones. When you eat foods rich in calcium, the calcium will be restored to the bones and the balance between your blood and bones will be maintained.
Calcium supplements are taken by individuals who are unable to get enough calcium in their regular diet or who have a need for more calcium. They are used to prevent or treat several conditions that may cause hypocalcemia (not enough calcium in the blood). The body needs calcium to make strong bones. Calcium is also needed for the heart, muscles, and nervous system to work properly.
Pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, and adolescents may need more calcium than they normally get from eating calcium-rich foods. Adult women may take calcium supplements to help prevent a bone disease called osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, which causes thin, porous, easily broken bones, may occur in women after menopause, but may sometimes occur in elderly men also. Osteoporosis in women past menopause is thought to be caused by a reduced amount of ovarian estrogen (a female hormone). However, a diet low in calcium for many years, especially in the younger adult years, may add to the risk of developing it. Other bone diseases in children and adults are also treated with calcium supplements.
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