Bupropion (INN; previously known as amfebutamone, Wellbutrin, Zyban) is an atypical antidepressant that acts as a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and nicotinic antagonist. Bupropion belongs to the chemical class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to the stimulant cathinone, to the anorectic diethylpropion, and to phenethylamines in general.
Bupropion was first synthesized by Burroughs Research in 1966, and patented by Burroughs-Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1974. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an antidepressant on December 30, 1985 and marketed under the name Wellbutrin. However, a significant incidence of seizures at the originally recommended dosage (400-600 mg) caused the withdrawal of the drug in 1986. Subsequently, the risk of seizures was found to be highly dose-dependent, and bupropion was re-introduced to the market in 1989 with a maximum recommended dose of 450 mg/day.
Bupropion lowers seizure threshold and its potential to cause seizures was widely publicized. However, at the recommended dose the risk of seizures is comparable to that observed for other antidepressants. Bupropion is an effective antidepressant on its own but it is particularly popular as an add-on medication in the cases of incomplete response to the first-line SSRI antidepressant. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, including nearly all antidepressants, bupropion does not cause weight gain or sexual dysfunction.
Carbidopa inhibits aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (DOPA Decarboxylase or DDC), an enzyme important in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan to serotonin and in the biosynthesis of L-DOPA to Dopamine (DA). Along with carbidopa, other DDC inhibitors are benserazide (Ro-4-4602), difluromethyldopa, and a-methyldopa.
Pharmaceutical manufacturers offer albuterol in multiple forms: a hand held inhaler, an aerosolized mist delivered through a machine called a nebulizer, and a pill form. Albuterol opens up constricted and inflamed bronchial tubes and allows more air to enter the lungs. Doctors prescribe albuterol as a "rescue medication," offering immediate relief from difficulty breathing or wheezing. Common side effects include tremors, anxiety and increases in the heart rate. Allergic reactions can also occur, but are rare.
Diltiazem is a potent vasodilator, increasing blood flow and variably decreasing the heart rate via strong depression of A-V node conduction. Its pharmacolgical activity is somewhat similar to verapamil.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. Pure dextromethorphan occurs as a powder made up of white crystals, but it is generally administered via syrups, tablets, or lozenges manufactured under several different brand names and generic labels.
Diltiazem is relatively contraindicated in the presence of sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular node conduction disturbances, bradycardia, impaired left ventricle function, peripheral artery occlusive disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Prinzmetal's angina.
Diltiazem is a member of the group of drugs known as benzothiazepines, which are a class of calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia. It is a class 3 anti-anginal drug, and a class IV antidysrhythmic. It incites very minimal reflex sympathetic changes.