Bupropion (INN; previously known as amfebutamone, Wellbutrin, Zyban) is an atypical antidepressant that acts as a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and nicotinic antagonist. Bupropion belongs to the chemical class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to the stimulant cathinone, to the anorectic diethylpropion, and to phenethylamines in general.
Verapamil (brand names: Isoptin, Verelan, Calan, Bosoptin) is an L-type calcium channel blocker. It has been used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, and most recently, cluster headaches. Verapamil has also been used as a vasodilator during cryopreservation of blood vessels. It is a class 4 antiarrhythmic, more effective than digoxin in controlling ventricular rate, and was approved by the FDA in 1981.
In cardiac pharmacology, Calcium channel blockers are considered class IV antiarrhythmic agents. Since Calcium channels are especially concentrated in the sinoatrial and atrio-ventricular nodes, these agents can be used to decrease impulse conduction through the AV node, thus protecting the ventricles from atrial tachyarrhythmias.
The pain of angina is caused by a deficit in oxygen supply to the heart. Calcium channel blockers like Verapamil will dilate blood vessels, which increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. This controls chest pain, but only when used regularly. It does not stop chest pain once it starts. A more powerful vasodilator such as nitroglycerin may be needed to control pain once it starts.
Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is actually classified as an imidazopyridine. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic effects.
Zolpidem is a prescription medication used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). Some trade names of zolpidem are Ambien, Hypnogen, Myslee. Nimadorm, Nitrest, Sanval, Stilnoct, Stilnox, Zolfresh, and Zolt.
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